Bamboo is a perennial grass that belongs to the family Poaceae. It is one of the fastest-growing plants on the planet and has various uses, ranging from construction material to food. Bamboo is native to many parts of the world, including India, and is an important natural resource for many communities. India has several species of bamboo, with the most common being Bambusa arundinacea, commonly known as the giant Indian bamboo.

Tree CharacteristicsDescription
Common NameBamboo
Scientific NameBambusoideae
Maximum HeightRanges from 10 to 40 meters, depending on the species
Diameter of CrownVaries depending on the species, from narrow to wide
Diameter of TrunkVaries depending on the species, from thin to thick
Years to GrowCan take anywhere from 1-5 years to reach maturity, depending on species
Economic BenefitProvides a variety of economic benefits to farmers, including use in construction, furniture-making, paper production, food, medicine, and more

Physical Characteristics

Bamboo can grow up to 30 meters in height, with some species reaching even higher. The shape of bamboo plants varies, but most have a thin, upright stem that is segmented and hollow. Bamboo has a unique branching pattern with nodes and internodes along the stem. The leaves of the bamboo plant are typically long and thin, with a pointed tip.

Ecological Role

Bamboo plays a vital ecological role in India’s ecosystem. It acts as a natural barrier against soil erosion and helps maintain the water table. The plant also serves as a habitat for several species of birds and animals, making it an important part of the food chain.

Importance to Birds, Animals, and Insects

Bamboo forests are home to several endangered species of animals such as the Giant Panda, Mountain Gorilla, and Golden Lemur. Many species of birds and insects also depend on bamboo for their habitat and food.

Soil and Climate Condition

Bamboo grows best in well-drained soils that are rich in organic matter. It thrives in tropical and subtropical climates and requires a temperature range of 20°C to 30°C for optimal growth.

States in India Where the Tree is Found Naturally

Bamboo is found throughout India, with the northeastern states of Assam, Mizoram, and Meghalaya being the major producers.

Different Stages of Tree Growth

Bamboo goes through several stages of growth, from germination to maturity. In the first year, the bamboo plant establishes roots and produces shoots. The second year sees the plant producing more shoots, and by the third year, the bamboo stems have reached their maximum height. The plant then continues to grow taller and produce new shoots each year.

Bamboo Species in India

There are over 100 species of bamboo found in India, but some of the most common ones are:

Bambusa arundinacea: Also known as the Thorny Bamboo, it is found throughout India and is used for making baskets, mats, and handicrafts.

Dendrocalamus strictus: Also known as the Male Bamboo or Calcutta Bamboo, it is found in the Himalayan region, and the north-eastern and central parts of India. It is used for construction, paper pulp, and handicrafts.

Bambusa bambos: Also known as Giant Thorny Bamboo, it is found in the Himalayan region and the north-eastern parts of India. It is used for making mats, baskets, and handicrafts.

Bambusa tulda: Also known as the Spiny Bamboo, it is found in the north-eastern and eastern parts of India. It is used for making handicrafts and as a construction material.

Melocanna baccifera: Also known as the Sweet Bamboo, it is found in the north-eastern region of India. It is used for making utensils, handicrafts, and musical instruments.

Thyrsostachys oliveri: Also known as the Himalayan Bamboo, it is found in the Himalayan region of India. It is used for construction and paper pulp.

Bambusa nutans: This species is commonly known as the “Hanging Bamboo” due to its drooping culms. It is found in the Himalayas and Northeast India and can grow up to 20 meters tall. It is used for handicrafts, paper-making, and construction.

Thyrsostachys siamensis: This species is commonly known as “Thai Bamboo” and is found in the Western Ghats and other parts of India. It can grow up to 20 meters tall and is used for construction, handicrafts, and paper-making.

Benefits of Growing Bamboo

Bamboo has several benefits for farmers, particularly in agroforestry. The plant can be used as a windbreak to protect crops, as a natural pesticide, and as a source of income. Bamboo can be harvested every three to four years, making it a sustainable source of income for farmers.

How much can a farmer earn by growing bamboo in 1 acres in India ?

The income a farmer can earn by growing bamboo in 1 acre of land in India can vary widely depending on several factors such as the type of bamboo species, the growth rate, the age of the plantation, the demand for bamboo, and the region where it is grown.

On average, a mature bamboo plantation can yield around 20-25 tons of bamboo per acre. The price of bamboo can vary depending on the region, market demand, and quality, but it can range from Rs. 5-15 per kg.

Assuming an average yield of 22.5 tons per acre and an average price of Rs. 10 per kg, a farmer can earn a gross income of around Rs. 2,25,000 per acre. However, it is important to note that the actual profit margin can be lower due to expenses such as labor costs, transportation costs, and maintenance costs.

It is also important to consider the long-term investment in bamboo cultivation as bamboo takes several years to reach maturity and the initial investment can be higher. However, bamboo has a long life span and can provide a sustainable source of income for farmers in the long run.

National Bamboo Mission of India

The National Bamboo Mission (NBM) is a program launched by the Government of India in 2006 to promote the growth of bamboo as an economic activity. The mission aims to enhance the role of bamboo in the country’s economic development and to contribute to the livelihoods of rural communities.

The program focuses on various aspects of bamboo cultivation, including research and development, propagation, and marketing. It seeks to promote sustainable bamboo-based livelihoods through entrepreneurship, job creation, and income generation.

One of the primary objectives of the NBM is to increase the area under bamboo cultivation by promoting the adoption of best practices and technologies. This includes the use of high-yielding varieties, the development of bamboo nurseries, and the use of scientific methods for plantation management. The mission also supports the establishment of processing units and facilitates access to credit for bamboo growers and entrepreneurs.

The NBM has been instrumental in creating awareness about the potential of bamboo as a sustainable resource. It has encouraged the use of bamboo in various sectors, including construction, furniture, handicrafts, and textiles. The mission has also facilitated the development of bamboo-based industries, creating new employment opportunities for rural communities.

Overall, the National Bamboo Mission has been successful in promoting bamboo cultivation and use in India. It has helped to harness the potential of this versatile and sustainable resource to contribute to economic development and improve the livelihoods of rural communities.


Bamboo is a versatile plant with numerous ecological and economic benefits. Its fast growth and adaptability make it an important natural resource for many communities in India. By promoting the growth of bamboo, farmers can not only improve their livelihoods but also contribute to the preservation of the environment.

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