Bengal Florican: The Majestic Indian Bustard

The Bengal Florican, also called the Bengal bustard, is a fascinating bird species that originates from the Indian subcontinent.It boasts a glorious heritage of resilience and perseverance, as well as an undeniably magnificent aesthetic that turns heads wherever it is spotted. This unique bird holds an allure with its striking appearance, distinctive behaviours, and intriguing way of life, all of which contribute to the mesmerising charm it has on its observers. This article will delve into the life of the Bengal Florican, its unique characteristics, habitat, and the threats it faces, to unravel the mystical world of this majestic Indian Bustard.

Serial NumberCharacteristicsDescription
1Common nameBengal Florican
2Scientific nameHoubaropsis bengalensis
3ColourMales: Black with white wing patches, Females: Buff-brown
4Average length66–68 cm (26–27 in)
5Average heightAround 55 cm (22 in)
6Type of birdBustard
7Found in India in statesUttar Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Terai region of Nepal
8HabitatOpen tall grassland habitats with scattered bushes
9IUCN StatusCritically Endangered

Features of the Bird


Bengal floricans range from 66 to 68 cm (26–27 in) in length, a testament to their substantial size that contributes to their imposing presence in their grassland habitats. This length, coupled with their distinctive body shape and attractive plumage, gives them a formidable appearance. The floricans are known to stand tall, which adds to their impressive stature and aids them in surveying their surroundings for potential threats or foraging opportunities.


The height of the Bengal Florican is another aspect that sets it apart. They stand around 55 cm (22 in) tall, allowing them a vantage point that facilitates the hunting of insects, amphibians, and other small creatures that make up their diet. This height, along with their long necks, also plays a crucial role during their courtship displays, where males extend their necks and fluff their plumage to attract potential mates.


When it comes to weight, there is a noticeable sexual dimorphism between male and female Bengal floricans. Males typically weigh between 1.2–1.5 kg (2.6–3.3 lb), while females are larger and weigh around 1.7–1.9 kg (3.7–4.2 lb). This difference is not unique to floricans and is observed in many bird species, where females are often larger than males.

Plumage and Physical Characteristics

The male Bengal florican’s stunning black plumage, with a large white patch from the wing coverts to the remiges, sets it apart from many other species. Their heads feature a long lanky crest, and the neck has elongated display plumes, which contribute significantly to their courtship displays. Females, on the other hand, have a buff-brown plumage similar to the males’ back, with a dark brown crown and narrow dark streaks down the side of the neck. The wing coverts of females are lighter than the remiges and are adorned with fine dark barring.

Habitat and Food of the Bengal Florican

  1. The Bengal Florican thrives in open tall grassland habitats with scattered bushes. They are commonly seen in grasslands rich in satintails Imperata, sugarcane, munj grass, and Desmostachya bipinnata.
  1. These habitats are primarily found in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and the Terai region of Nepal. They are also found in Cambodia and southern Vietnam.
  1. Florican habitats are often chosen for their abundance of food sources. The Bengal Florican’s diet comprises primarily insects, including grasshoppers and beetles, as well as small vertebrates such as frogs and lizards.
  1. During the breeding season, the birds prefer high grassland rich in sugarcane, which offers excellent cover for nests and foraging grounds.
  1. Bengal floricans are mostly resident birds, meaning they don’t migrate over large distances. However, some populations move to warmer lowland locations during the winter season or move away from flooded areas in the rainy season.

Nesting and Nurturing

Bengal Florican nests are usually uncomplicated, consisting of a shallow depression on the ground that is covered with grass and leaves. They are often concealed in tall grass or under a bush to blend in with their surroundings. The female lays two eggs, which take approximately 25 days to hatch after being incubated. During the incubation period and the first few days after the chicks hatch, the female becomes highly secretive to protect her offspring from predators. She will often perform a ‘broken-wing’ display to distract predators away from the nest.


The Bengal Florican is most threatened by the loss and fragmentation of its habitat, caused by activities such as agricultural land conversion, infrastructure development, and human settlement encroachment. Additionally, they face the danger of poaching for their meat and eggs, which are considered delicacies in some regions. Climate change and its associated impacts, such as shifts in rainfall patterns and increased flooding, also pose substantial threats to their habitats and survival.

IUCN Status and Conservation

According to the IUCN Red List, the Bengal Florican is critically endangered with less than 1,000 estimated to be alive as of 2017. This dire status is due to the rapid decline in their population over the past few decades, primarily driven by habitat loss. Conservation efforts are ongoing, including habitat management and protection, community-based conservation initiatives, and awareness programs. However, there’s an urgent need for more substantial measures, including stringent protection laws, landscape-level planning, and international cooperation, to ensure the survival of this magnificent species.

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