Common Buttonquail: A Hidden Treasure Amongst the Grasslands

Among the dense grasslands and scrub jungles of India, hides a tiny, elusive bird that often goes unnoticed. The Common Buttonquail, scientifically known as Turnix sylvaticus, is a fascinating creature that belongs to a unique family of birds. With a semblance to true quails but distinct in their own right, the Common Buttonquail’s story is as intriguing as its lifestyle. Despite their petite stature, these birds leave a significant imprint on their habitat, contributing to the ecosystem’s balance and vibrancy.

Serial NumberCharacteristicsDescription
1Common nameCommon Buttonquail
2Scientific nameTurnix sylvaticus
3ColourStreaked sandy brown upperparts, buff underparts with black flank markings
4Average length15 cm
5Average heightShort, ground-dwelling bird
6Type of birdGrassland bird
7Found in India in statesMaharashtra, widespread in other parts
8HabitatWarm grasslands or scrub jungle
9IUCN StatusNot Classified

Features of the Common Buttonquail


A small but spirited bird, the Common Buttonquail boasts a length of 15 cm, making it one of the smallest members of its family. This compact size serves the bird well, facilitating seamless navigation through the grassy terrains it calls home. While their petite size may pose challenges in spotting these birds, it is key to their survival strategy, aiding in evasion from predators and efficient foraging.


Being ground-dwelling birds, the Common Buttonquail doesn’t possess significant height. Their stature is low to the ground, an adaptation that supports their lifestyle. By remaining close to the ground, these birds can quickly vanish into their surroundings, making them difficult to spot. Their small height, however, doesn’t diminish their spirit or tenacity.

Running Speed

When it comes to speed, the Common Buttonquail, true to its character, surprises everyone. Despite its small size, this bird is swift on its feet. Although there’s no definitive record of their running speed, observers note their quick, almost scurrying movements. They are agile runners, often opting to dart into the undergrowth rather than taking flight when threatened.

Other Features

This buttonquail bears a streaked sandy brown colouration on its upperparts, blending perfectly with its grassland habitat. Its underparts display a buff tone with distinctive black flank markings. One unique feature is the plain face that stands in contrast with the patterned body. In flight, the grey wing contrasts with a whitish wingbar. Both sexes look similar, although the younger ones appear more spotted.

Habitat and Food of the Common Buttonquail

  1. Geographical Spread : The Common Buttonquail is a resident species in multiple regions, ranging from southern Spain and Africa, through India and tropical Asia, to Indonesia.
  1. Habitat Preference : This bird favours warm grasslands and scrub jungles. It actively avoids thick forest and hilly regions, preferring to reside in cornfields, grassy plains, or open scrub jungles.
  1. Diet : Common Buttonquails are omnivores, consuming both insects and seeds. Their diet contributes to controlling insect populations and aiding seed dispersal, thus playing a role in ecosystem balance.
  1. Foraging Behaviour : These birds are proficient foragers, using their beaks to pick out insects or seeds from the ground. Their quick, darting movements help them efficiently collect food.
  1. Seasonal Changes : As a resident bird, the Common Buttonquail doesn’t display significant migratory patterns. However, seasonal changes may influence their feeding habits, with the availability of certain insects or seeds varying with the seasons.

Nesting and Nurturing

The Common Buttonquail’s nesting habits are as secretive as the bird itself. They prefer ground nesting, usually within the safety of dense grasses. The females take charge of the incubation process. Like other buttonquails, the Common Buttonquail may display a reversal of traditional roles, with males potentially involved in the care of the young, a topic warranting further research.


The Common Buttonquail is one of many ground-dwelling bird species that is currently facing similar threats. Human activities such as farming, city development, and deforestation are causing the destruction of their natural habitats, which is a significant concern that requires immediate attention. Habitat loss due to human activities like agriculture, urbanisation, and deforestation is a significant concern. Additionally, being ground nesters, their eggs and chicks are vulnerable to predation by various ground predators, including snakes, monitor lizards, and other carnivorous mammals.

IUCN Status and Conservation

The IUCN has not officially classified the Common Buttonquail’s conservation status as of the latest update. However, considering the threats that these birds face, conservation measures should be put into place to protect their habitats. Conservation strategies may include protecting and restoring grasslands, controlling predators, and raising public awareness about these charming, elusive birds. These measures would not only safeguard the Common Buttonquail but also preserve the ecological balance of grassland habitats.

With their secretive nature and swift movements, the Common Buttonquails exemplify the wonders of the avian world that often go unnoticed. As we strive to understand these birds better, they continue to surprise and delight us, revealing new facets of their lives in the warm grasslands and scrub jungles of India. They remind us that sometimes, the most profound marvels lie in the simplest of creatures.

More info about Common Buttonquail: Link

image_pdfDownload As PDF

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *