Indian almond tree 

The Indian almond tree, also known as Terminalia catappa, is a deciduous tree that is native to India and Southeast Asia. It is known for its striking foliage, beautiful flowers, and nutritious fruits, making it a popular tree species in India.

Tree CharacteristicsDescription
Common NameIndian Almond Tree
Scientific nameTerminalia catappa
Maximum height30-40 meters
Diameter of crown when mature10-20 meters
Diameter of the tree trunk when mature1-1.5 meters
Years it takes to grow20-25 years
Economic benefit to the farmersFruits are used for medicinal purposes and can be sold in the market for profit. The tree also helps in soil conservation, reduces soil erosion and improves soil fertility. It can be used in agroforestry systems to improve crop productivity.

Physical characteristics

The Indian almond tree can reach a maximum height of 30 meters, and its crown can spread up to 25 meters. The tree has a distinctive dome-shaped crown and a broad trunk with a diameter of up to 3 meters. The leaves are large and glossy, and the tree produces small, fragrant white flowers that bloom in clusters. The tree also produces a small, green fruit that resembles a miniature mango.

Ecological role

The Indian almond tree plays an important ecological role, particularly in coastal areas. The tree’s extensive root system helps stabilize the soil and prevent erosion, while its fallen leaves provide nutrients to the soil. Additionally, the tree’s flowers and fruit provide food for a variety of birds, animals, and insects.

Importance to Birds, animals and insects

The Indian almond tree’s fruit is particularly important to birds and animals, who rely on the tree for a source of food. The tree’s flowers also attract a variety of insects, including bees and butterflies, which help with pollination.

Type of soil needed for growing

The Indian almond tree grows best in well-draining soils that are rich in nutrients. It can tolerate a wide range of soil types, including sandy, loamy, and clay soils.

Temperature range needed for good growth

The Indian almond tree prefers warm, humid climates and can tolerate temperatures between 15°C to 38°C.

Climatic conditions needed for good growth

The Indian almond tree requires a tropical or subtropical climate to thrive. It prefers areas with high rainfall and humidity, particularly in coastal regions.

States in India where the tree is found naturally

The Indian almond tree is found naturally in several states in India, including Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh.

Different stages of tree growth in detail

The Indian almond tree undergoes several stages of growth, starting from seedling to mature tree. In the first few years, the tree grows rapidly and can reach a height of up to 5 meters. After reaching maturity, the tree slows its growth and produces a larger crown and thicker trunk.

How farmers are benefited by growing it under agroforestry

Farmers can benefit from growing Indian almond trees as part of an agroforestry system. The tree’s leaves can be used as a source of mulch, which helps improve soil fertility and moisture retention. Additionally, the tree’s fruit can be sold in local markets, providing an additional source of income for farmers.


The Indian almond tree is a valuable tree species that provides numerous benefits to both the environment and farmers. Its ability to stabilize soil, provide food for animals and insects, and produce nutritious fruit makes it an important part of the Indian landscape. Additionally, farmers can benefit from growing Indian almond trees as part of an agroforestry system, improving soil fertility and providing an additional source of income.

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