Mainland Serow

India is home to a vast array of animal species, from majestic tigers and elephants to tiny insects and amphibians. Among the country’s diverse wildlife, there are some lesser-known but equally fascinating creatures that are worth learning about. In this article, we will take a closer look at the large Mainland Serow. We will explore their unique characteristics, habitats, and the challenges they face in the wild, as well as the importance of conserving these incredible animals for future generations.


The mainland serow (Capricornis sumatraensis) is a species of goat-antelope that is found in various parts of Asia, including India. The origins of the serow family can be traced back to the late Miocene period, which was around 5 to 7 million years ago.

The ancestral species of the serow is believed to have originated in the forested regions of central and eastern Asia, from where it spread across the continent. The ancestral species evolved over time into several different species, including the mainland serow.

It is believed that the serow may have reached India during the Pleistocene epoch, which was around 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago. During this time, the climate of the Indian subcontinent was much cooler and drier than it is today, and the region was home to several species of large mammals. It is thought that the serow may have migrated southwards from the Himalayas, possibly following river systems and other forested areas.

Distribution and Population in India

The mainland serow (Capricornis sumatraensis) is found in various parts of India, including the Himalayan foothills, and the northeastern states. The species is most commonly found in forested regions at elevations of up to 3,000 meters above sea level. The distribution and population of the mainland serow in India vary across different regions. In the northeastern states, the serow is found in areas such as the Namdapha National Park and the Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary.

While the population of the mainland serow in India is not accurately known, the species is believed to be declining in some parts of its range due to habitat loss and hunting. In some areas, the serow is hunted for its meat, which is considered a delicacy by some people. Habitat loss due to deforestation and fragmentation is also a major threat to the species.



 The mainland serow has a stocky body with short legs and a thick, shaggy coat. The coat is usually dark brown or black, with lighter-colored fur on the underbelly and legs. The species has a large head with long, curving horns that are present in both males and females. The mainland serow stands about 80-120 cm at the shoulder and weighs between 50 to 150 kg. Males are generally larger and heavier than females. The coat of the mainland serow is usually dark brown or black, with lighter-colored fur on the underbelly and legs. Some individuals may have white markings on the face, chest, or legs.


 The mainland serow is a solitary and mostly nocturnal animal. During the day, it rests in rocky outcrops, caves, or dense vegetation. The species is well adapted to life in rugged and mountainous terrain, with strong and flexible legs that enable it to navigate rocky slopes and steep terrain. The mainland serow gives birth to a single offspring after a gestation period of about 200 days. The young are born with a spotted coat and are able to walk within hours of birth. They stay with their mother for up to a year before becoming independent.

Food Habits

The species is primarily herbivorous, feeding on a variety of plant materials, including leaves, stems, fruits, and bark. 


The mainland serow is typically found in forested areas at elevations of up to 3,000 meters above sea level. The species prefers steep, rocky terrain and is adapted to live in rugged and mountainous areas. The species is most commonly found in areas with a cool and moist climate, such as the Himalayan foothills and the Western Ghats.

Vulnerable Species

The mainland serow (Capricornis sumatraensis) is considered to be a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It was first listed as vulnerable in 2008, and its status was reconfirmed in 2021.

The species is vulnerable due to a number of threats, including habitat loss and degradation, hunting, and disease. The habitat of the mainland serow is being rapidly destroyed and degraded due to deforestation, agricultural expansion, and urbanization. As a result, the species is losing its natural habitats and becoming increasingly isolated.

The species is also hunted for meat and for its body parts, which are used in traditional medicine. Hunting of the species is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, where the species is considered a valuable game animal.

The disease is another major threat to mainland serow. The species is susceptible to a number of diseases, including bovine tuberculosis, which is transmitted by domestic cattle. The spread of diseases from domestic animals to wild populations is a growing concern in many parts of the world and poses a particular risk to species that are already threatened.

Protected Areas

Mainland serows (Capricornis sumatraensis) are found in several protected areas in India, including national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. These areas provide crucial habitats for the species and are important for their conservation. 

  • Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh located in the easternmost part of Arunachal Pradesh, is home to a significant population of mainland serows. The park is characterised by rugged terrain, dense forests, and a variety of wildlife species. 
  • Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim is home to a population of mainland serows, as well as a variety of other wildlife species such as snow leopards, musk deer, and red pandas. The park is known for its high-altitude peaks and alpine meadows. 
  • Balpakram National Park in Meghalaya is home to a population of mainland serows, as well as other wildlife species such as elephants, tigers, and hoolock gibbons. The park is characterised by its rugged terrain and deep gorges. 
  • Dampa Tiger Reserve in Mizoram is home to a significant population of mainland serows, as well as other wildlife species such as tigers, leopards, and clouded leopards. The reserve is characterised by its hilly terrain and dense forests. 
  • Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary in Arunachal Pradesh is home to a population of mainland serows, as well as other wildlife species such as elephants, tigers, and hornbills. The sanctuary is characterised by its rugged terrain and dense forests.

These protected areas play an important role in the conservation of mainland serows in India. They provide crucial habitat for the species, as well as protection from threats such as habitat loss, hunting, and disease. Conservation efforts in these protected areas, such as habitat restoration, anti-poaching patrols, and disease monitoring, are crucial for the long-term survival of the species in the wild.

Conservation of the Species

 Protecting and conserving their natural habitats is one of the most effective ways to ensure the survival of these species. This can be achieved through the creation and management of protected areas, such as national parks and wildlife reserves, and the restoration of degraded habitats. 

Illegal hunting and poaching of these species is a major threat to their survival. Effective anti-poaching measures, such as increased patrols, community-based monitoring programs, and strong enforcement of wildlife laws, can help to reduce this threat. 

Raising public awareness about the importance of these species and their conservation can help to reduce the demand for their products, such as fur and body parts, and reduce human-wildlife conflict. 

Education and awareness programs aimed at local communities and hunters can also help to reduce the illegal hunting of these species. 

Gathering more information about these species, including their population sizes, distribution, and ecological needs can help to inform conservation efforts and improve our understanding of their conservation status. 

In some cases, conservation breeding programs may be necessary to support the recovery of populations that are at risk of extinction. This involves breeding individuals in captivity and then releasing them back into the wild, once sufficient populations have been established.

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