Nilgai, also known as the blue bull, is a large antelope species native to the Indian subcontinent. 

The coat of the Nilgai is predominantly bluish-grey in colour, with males having a darker coloration than females. They have white patches on their cheeks, throat, and belly. The tail has a tuft of black hair at the end.

Nilgai are the largest antelopes in Asia, with males standing around 1.5 metres (4.9 feet) at the shoulder and weighing between 180-240 kg (400-530 pounds). Females are slightly smaller, with a shoulder height of around 1.2 metres (3.9 feet) and a weight of 120-220 kg (260-480 pounds).

Nilgai males are larger and darker in colour than females. They have a distinct ridge of hair on their backs that can be raised when the animal is threatened or excited. Both males and females have long, pointed ears and short, curved horns that are present only in males.

Nilgai are primarily diurnal, meaning they are active during the day. They are social animals, living in small herds of females and young males, with solitary males only coming together during breeding season. Nilgai are known for their strong sense of smell and hearing, which they use to detect predators. They are also excellent runners and can reach speeds of up to 50 kilometres (31 miles) per hour. Nilgai are adapted to arid and semi-arid environments and are capable of surviving without water for long periods by getting moisture from their food. Additionally, Nilgai have been known to consume poisonous plants without any harmful effects, which is a unique adaptation that allows them to exploit food resources that other animals cannot.

Food Habits

Nilgai are primarily herbivores and feed on a variety of vegetation, including grasses, leaves, fruits, and flowers. They are known to be browsers and grazers, meaning they consume both leaves and grasses. Nilgai have a unique ability to consume a wide range of plants, including those that are unpalatable or even toxic to other herbivores. This ability allows them to survive in areas with scarce vegetation and exploit food resources that other animals cannot. Nilgai are also known to cause significant damage to crops, particularly during times of drought when food sources are limited..


Nilgai can be found in a variety of habitats, including open forests, grasslands, scrublands, and agricultural areas. They are well adapted to arid and semi-arid environments and are found in areas with low rainfall.

Vulnerable Species

Nilgai populations in India are currently classified as “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. However, in some states, populations have declined due to habitat loss and hunting.One of the major threats to Nilgai populations is habitat loss due to human activities such as agriculture, urbanisation, and industrialization. Nilgai are also hunted for their meat and hides, and in some areas, they are considered agricultural pests and are killed as a form of pest control.

Additionally, they face threats from predators such as wild dogs, wolves, and tigers. The exact population of Nilgai in India is difficult to estimate due to their widespread distribution and the lack of a comprehensive population survey. However, according to a survey conducted by the Wildlife Institute of India in 2015, the population of Nilgai in India is estimated to be around 1.09 million individuals. However, there are regional differences in their numbers, and in some areas, populations have declined due to hunting and habitat loss.

Protected Areas

Nilgai can be found in several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries in India.

Located in Rajasthan, Ranthambore National Park is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including Nilgai. The park is known for its tigers, but Nilgai can also be spotted here.

Another national park located in Rajasthan, Sariska is home to a diverse range of wildlife, including leopards, hyenas, and Nilgai. Located in Madhya Pradesh, Kanha National Park is known for its tigers and is also home to Nilgai, wild dogs, and other wildlife. 

Located in Madhya Pradesh, Bandhavgarh National Park is known for its high density of tigers and is also home to Nilgai, Indian bison, and other wildlife.

 Located in Gujarat, Velavadar National Park is known for its population of blackbucks, but it is also home to Nilgai and other wildlife. Located in Rajasthan, the Desert National Park is a unique ecosystem in the Thar Desert and is home to a variety of wildlife, including Nilgai, chinkara, and Indian foxes.

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