The pistachio tree (Pistacia vera), commonly known as pista in India, is a small deciduous tree that produces a delicious, nutritious fruit. It belongs to the Anacardiaceae family and is native to the Middle East and Central Asia. Pistachio trees are widely cultivated for their delicious and nutritious nuts, which are a popular snack all around the world. In India, pistachios are mostly grown in the arid regions of Rajasthan.

Tree CharacteristicsDescription
Common NamePistachio Fruit Plant (Pista)
Scientific namePistacia vera
Maximum height3 to 4 meters
Diameter when mature4 to 6 meters
Years it takes to grow8 to 10 years
Economic benefitHigh value crop that yields profitable returns to farmers

Physical characteristics

The pistachio tree is a small to medium-sized tree that grows up to 10 meters tall. It has a spreading canopy and a rounded, irregular shape. The tree’s leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, and shiny green in color. The flowers are small and greenish-yellow in color, appearing in early spring before the leaves. The tree produces fruit in the form of a drupe that is a pale green color, which turns to pinkish-red when ripe.

Ecological role

Pistachio trees have several ecological roles. They help prevent soil erosion by holding the soil together with their root systems. Additionally, they provide shade and shelter for many species of birds and insects. The trees are also capable of fixing nitrogen in the soil, which makes it easier for other plants to grow.

Importance to Birds, animals and insects

Pistachio trees are an important source of food for many species of birds and animals. The fruit and leaves of the tree are consumed by many different types of wildlife, including squirrels, rats, and birds such as parakeets and doves.

Type of soil needed for growing

Pistachio trees grow best in well-draining soils that are slightly alkaline, with a pH range of 7.0-8.0. The trees can tolerate soils that are high in salt content, making them well-suited to arid and semi-arid regions.

Temperature range

Pistachio trees require a warm climate to grow, with temperatures ranging from 15°C to 35°C. The trees are adapted to hot, dry conditions and can tolerate temperatures as high as 50°C.

Climatic conditions

Pistachio trees are well-suited to dry, arid regions with low rainfall. They require full sun exposure and can tolerate temperatures as low as -10°C.

States in India where the tree is found naturally

Pistachio trees are not found naturally in India, but they are cultivated in arid regions of Rajasthan.

States where it is commercially grown

The majority of pistachio cultivation in India is concentrated in the Jodhpur, Bikaner, and Nagaur districts.

Commercial growing of tree

Commercial cultivation of pistachio trees is an important economic activity in Rajasthan. The trees are grown on a large scale, and the nuts are harvested and processed for sale both domestically and internationally. The demand for pistachios is high, and their high market value makes them a profitable crop for farmers.

Different stages of tree growth in details:

The pistachio tree takes about 7-10 years to reach maturity and starts bearing fruits. During the first 3 years, the tree grows rapidly, reaching a height of about 3-4 meters. In the fourth year, the tree starts to branch out and produces small flowers. By the fifth year, the tree will have produced some fruits, which will continue to increase in number and size as the tree grows.

In the sixth and seventh years, the tree starts to bear fruit in significant quantities, and the yield increases every year as the tree matures. The tree can live for up to 150 years and will continue to produce fruits throughout its life.

How farmers are benefited

Pistachio farming is an excellent option for farmers looking to diversify their crops and increase their income. The tree requires very little maintenance once established, making it an ideal crop for small farmers.

Pistachio is a high-value crop, with the price of pistachio nuts being significantly higher than other nuts like almonds and walnuts. The trees have a long life, which means that farmers can expect a steady income for several years.

The tree is also beneficial for the environment, as it helps to prevent soil erosion and provides habitat for wildlife. The shade from the trees can help to keep the temperature in the surrounding area cooler, which can be beneficial for other crops and livestock.


The pistachio tree bears fruit once a year, in late summer or early autumn. The fruit is harvested by shaking the branches, causing the ripe nuts to fall to the ground. The nuts are then collected and dried in the sun, which helps to preserve them.


In conclusion, the pistachio tree is a valuable crop for farmers in India. It requires minimal maintenance, has a long life, and provides a high-value crop that can increase farmers’ income. The tree also has ecological benefits, such as preventing soil erosion and providing habitat for wildlife. With the increasing demand for pistachio nuts worldwide, growing pistachios can be a profitable and sustainable farming option for small farmers in India.

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