Pit Viper 

Pit vipers are a group of venomous snakes that are well-known for their heat-sensing pits located between their eyes and nostrils. These pits help the snake to detect prey and predators, making them highly effective hunters. Pit vipers are a fascinating group of snakes that are found all over the world, including India. In this article, we will explore the features, venom, habitat, and importance of pit vipers in the Indian ecosystem.

NamePit Viper
Scientific NameTrimeresurus spp.
ColourVarious shades of green, brown, and grey
Length50-100 cm
HabitatForests, hills, and mountains
Toxicity LevelVenomous, potentially fatal
Indian states where it’s foundMost states, including Himalayan regions
IUCN statusNot evaluated


Pit vipers are a highly diverse group of snakes, with a wide range of sizes, colours, and patterns. In India, pit vipers can range from 40 to 150 cm in length and can weigh up to 4 kg. They have a triangular-shaped head, vertical pupils, and fangs that are used to inject venom into their prey. Pit vipers have a heat-sensing pit located between their eyes and nostrils, which helps them to detect their prey.

Colouration can vary greatly between species, but most pit vipers have a pattern of dark stripes or spots on a lighter background. They are often camouflaged to blend in with their surroundings, making them difficult to spot in the wild.

Type of Venom

Pit vipers are venomous snakes, and their venom is highly toxic. The venom of pit vipers is primarily hemotoxic, meaning it destroys red blood cells and damages tissues. The venom can also be neurotoxic, affecting the nervous system, and causing paralysis.

Habitat and Food

Pit vipers are found in a wide range of habitats, including forests, deserts, and mountains. In India, they are commonly found in the Western Ghats and the Himalayan region. Pit vipers are ambush predators, and they rely on their heat-sensing pits to detect their prey. They feed on a variety of prey, including rodents, birds, lizards, and even other snakes.

Where is it found in India

In India, pit vipers are found in a variety of habitats, including the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats, the Himalayan region, and the Northeastern states. Some of the most commonly found species of pit vipers in India include the Malabar pit viper, the Himalayan pit viper, and the Bamboo pit viper.

Importance to ecosystem

Pit vipers play an important role in the ecosystem as predators, helping to control the populations of their prey. They are also important indicators of the health of the ecosystem, as they are sensitive to changes in their environment. Additionally, some species of pit vipers have been used in traditional medicine, although this practice is not recommended due to the risks associated with handling venomous snakes.

IUCN status

The conservation status of pit vipers varies depending on the species. Some species, such as the Malabar pit viper, are listed as least concern, while others, such as the Indian hump-nosed pit viper, are listed as vulnerable. Habitat loss and degradation, as well as overexploitation for the pet trade, are the primary threats to pit vipers in India. Conservation efforts are needed to protect these fascinating and important snakes for future generations to appreciate and study.


Pit vipers are a diverse and important group of snakes found in India. Their unique features, venom, and role in the ecosystem make them a fascinating subject of study. While these snakes are venomous and can be dangerous, they are also an important part of the natural world that deserves our protection and conservation efforts.

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