Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary

World Wildlife Day

The stunning Sri Venkateswara Sanctuary & National Park is a protected area located in the Chittoor and Kadapa districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The sanctuary covers an area of approximately 353.62 square kilometers, which has a rich biodiversity, and is named after Lord Venkateswara, the patron deity of Tirumala. The ecosystem supports a variety of endemic to this area rare and endangered animals and plants. The entire core region of the sanctuary has been designated as a national park, improving the populations’ protected status.

Details of the park

1Name of the National ParkSri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary
2Year established1989
3Area in Sq Km353 Sq Km
4Elevation in m1500m – 2600m
5State / States spread inAndhra Pradesh
6Main Animals foundSpotted Deer, Wild Boar, Indian Giant Squirrel, Jungle Cat, Indian Pangolin
7Main Birds foundGrey Junglefowl, Indian Peafowl, Yellow-throated Bulbul, Oriental White-eye
8Main reptiles foundIndian Chameleon, Indian Monitor, Indian Flapshell Turtle, Indian Star Tortoise
9Best time to visitNovember to February

The sanctuary was established in 1989 with the aim of conserving the rich biodiversity of the region, which includes a wide range of flora and fauna. The sanctuary is home to several endangered species, including the Indian giant squirrel, the Indian leopard, the Slender Loris, and wild goats. The history of the Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary dates back to the early 1980s when the Government of Andhra Pradesh initiated the creation of a wildlife sanctuary in the region. The sanctuary was officially declared in 1989, and since then, it has been managed by the Andhra Pradesh Forest Department.


The region is characterized by a complex geology, with a variety of rock types ranging in age from the Archean to the Quaternary period.

The sanctuary is situated on the eastern slopes of the Eastern Ghats, which are a range of mountains that run parallel to the east coast of India. The mountains were formed as a result of tectonic activity during the Precambrian era, and the region has since undergone a complex geological history, including volcanic activity, faulting, and erosion. The rocks in the sanctuary are predominantly of the Archean age, and are mainly composed of granite, gneiss, and schist. The granite formations are widespread throughout the region, and form the core of the Eastern Ghats. The gneiss and schist formations are also common, and are found in the lower slopes of the hills.

The weather and climate in the Sanctuary are largely influenced by its location in the southern part of India, close to the Eastern Ghats. The sanctuary experiences a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The summer season in the sanctuary starts from March and lasts until June, with temperatures ranging from 25°C (77°F) to 40°C (104°F). The monsoon season begins in July and continues until September, bringing heavy rainfall to the region. The post-monsoon season from October to December is pleasant with cooler temperatures ranging from 15°C (59°F) to 30°C (86°F). The winter season starts in January and lasts until February, with temperatures ranging from 12°C (54°F) to 25°C (77°F).

The sanctuary receives an average annual rainfall of around 1,000 mm (39 inches), with most of the rain falling during the monsoon season. The vegetation in the sanctuary is adapted to the seasonal changes in rainfall and temperature, with deciduous trees shedding their leaves during the dry season to conserve water.

Forest Cover

The Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary is primarily a dry deciduous forest. The forest is dominated by several species of trees such as teak, red sanders, shisham, rosewood, axlewood, sandalwood, and bamboo. Other tree species found in the sanctuary include Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia pallida, Terminalia arjuna, Albizia amara, Cassia auriculata, Ficus religiosa, Shorea robusta, Santalum album, Red sanders, Sterculia urens, East Indian corkscrew tree, Ficus religiosa and Ficus benghalensis. The sanctuary also has several species of shrubs and herbs.

Any ecosystem’s health is reliant on both biotic and abiotic components. Invertebrates, in addition to plants, are also extremely important for maintaining the ecological web’s balance in nature. Preying mantises, painted grasshoppers, click beetles, silk cotton bugs, and other insects are vital for ensuring that the food chain is balanced. Arachnids, molluscs, and other lesser invertebrates are abundant in the forest as well. Tree frogs, Bull frogs, and other amphibians that control insects are seen in this diagram.

Animals Found

Diverse range of animal species, including several endangered and threatened species. Some of the animals that can be seen in the sanctuary are:

  • Indian elephant
  • Bengal tiger
  • Indian leopard
  • Sloth bear
  • Indian pangolin
  • Indian giant squirrel
  • Spotted deer
  • Sambar deer
  • Barking deer
  • Wild boar
  • Indian hare
  • Indian civet
  • Indian gray mongoose
  • Indian porcupine
  • Monitor lizard
  • Russell’s viper
  • Indian rock python
  • Jerdon’s courser (an endangered bird species)

Birds Found in Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary

Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of bird species. Some of the birds that can be found in the sanctuary are:

  • Indian peafowl
  • Painted spurfowl
  • Grey hornbill
  • Crested serpent eagle 
  • Black headed oriole
  • Pied kingfisher
  • Red spurfowl
  • Indian roller
  • Black-naped hare
  • Crested serpent eagle
  • Oriental honey buzzard
  • Indian scops owl
  • Brown fish owl
  • Indian pitta
  • Black-headed cuckoo-shrike
  • White-bellied drongo
  • Black-hooded oriole
  • Indian robin
  • Asian paradise flycatcher
  • Large-billed leaf warbler
  • Brown-capped pygmy woodpecker
  • Yellow-throated bulbul
  • White-browed wagtail

Reptiles Found in Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary

The Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary is also home to a variety of reptile species. Some of the reptiles found in the sanctuary are:

  • Golden gecko
  • Indian rock python
  • Russell’s viper
  • Indian cobra
  • Common krait
  • Saw-scaled viper
  • Fan-throated lizard
  • Indian monitor lizard
  • Indian chameleon
  • Indian garden lizard
  • Bronzeback tree snake
  • Common sand boa
  • Indian rat snake
  • Common wolf snake
  • Bengal monitor lizard

Best Time to Visit Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary

The best time to visit Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary is between the months of October and March, which is the winter season in the region. During this time, the weather is pleasant and cool, making it ideal for wildlife safaris and trekking.

The monsoon season, which lasts from June to September, brings heavy rainfall to the sanctuary and can make the terrain slippery and difficult to navigate. The summer months of April and May can be very hot and dry, with temperatures reaching up to 40°C (104°F).

Visitors should also keep in mind that the sanctuary can get crowded during the peak pilgrimage season, which coincides with major festivals like Navratri and Diwali. To avoid the crowds, it is best to plan your visit during weekdays and avoid weekends and holidays.

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