Wreathed Hornbill 

The Wreathed Hornbill, with its magnificent appearance and commanding presence, stands out as a true master of the skies. Its feathers shimmer in the sunlight, reflecting a dazzling array of colors that seems to change with every move. The large, curved beak is a testament to the power and resilience of this bird, capable of cracking open even the toughest of nuts and fruits.

Serial NumberCharacteristicDescription
1Common NameWreathed Hornbill
2Scientific NameRhyticeros undulatus
3ColourBlack with white belly, yellow bill, and blue throat
4Avg. Length100-130 cm
5Avg. Height90-120 cm
6Type of birdForest bird
7Found in IndiaArunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, and Nagaland
8HabitatTropical and subtropical forests

The hornbill’s voice is equally impressive, a deep and resonant call that echoes through the forest canopy, announcing its presence to all who would listen. But it is not just its appearance and vocal abilities that make the Wreathed Hornbill a true wonder of the avian world. This bird is also a devoted parent, with both male and female hornbills working together to raise their young.


The Wreathed Hornbill is a large and impressive bird, with striking physical features that make it instantly recognizable. This bird measures around 90-100 cm in length, with a wingspan of up to 1.5 meters. It has a distinctive appearance, with a black head and neck, a white belly, and a striking patch of blue skin around its eyes.

One of the most striking features of the Wreathed Hornbill is its bill. This beak is long and curved, measuring up to 30 cm in length, and is primarily yellow in color. The tip of the bill is black, adding to the dramatic effect of this bird’s appearance.

The Wreathed Hornbill’s plumage is equally impressive, with a mix of colors that vary depending on the sex and age of the bird. Adult males have a black and white tail, while females have a rufous-colored tail. Both males and females have a black and white body, with a chestnut-colored breast and a yellowish-white neck. The feathers on the bird’s back and wings are black with a greenish sheen, adding to its regal appearance.

Habitat and Food

The Wreathed Hornbill is a bird of the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia, where it can be found in countries such as India, Myanmar, Indonesia, and Malaysia. These birds prefer to live in the canopy layer of the forest, where they can easily fly from tree to tree in search of food and nesting sites.

The Wreathed Hornbill is an omnivore, feeding on a variety of fruits, nuts, insects, and small animals. Its diet is primarily made up of figs, which make up as much as 60% of its food intake. The bird’s large bill is well-suited for cracking open hard nuts and seeds, and it can swallow fruits whole.

The Wreathed Hornbill’s eating habits are not just important for its survival, but also for the survival of the forests in which it lives. These birds are important seed dispersers, as they eat fruit and then fly to a new location, depositing the seeds in their droppings. This helps to spread plant species throughout the forest, promoting diversity and ecosystem health.

Despite their importance to the forest ecosystem, Wreathed Hornbills are facing threats from habitat loss and hunting. As forests are cleared for agriculture and development, the bird’s habitat is shrinking, making it harder for them to find suitable nesting sites and food sources. Additionally, these birds are hunted for their meat and feathers, which are used in traditional medicine and as decoration. Conservation efforts are underway to protect the Wreathed Hornbill and its forest habitat, but more work is needed to ensure the survival of this majestic bird.

Nesting and Nurturing

The Wreathed Hornbill is a cavity-nesting bird, meaning it nests in tree cavities, which it lines with leaves, twigs, and mud. The male and female birds work together to construct the nest, which can take up to 90 days to complete. Once the nest is finished, the female will lay a clutch of one to two eggs, which are white in color and measure around 6 cm in length.

The eggs are incubated by the female, who remains inside the nest for the duration of the incubation period, which lasts around 35 days. During this time, the male brings food to the female and stands guard outside the nest, protecting the family from predators.

Once the eggs hatch, the baby birds are blind and helpless, relying entirely on their parents for care. The female will remain in the nest for several weeks, feeding the young and keeping them warm. The male continues to bring food to the nest, ensuring that there is enough for both the mother and the chicks.

As the chicks grow, they become more active and begin to explore their surroundings. Eventually, they will leave the nest and begin to fly, with the parents teaching them to hunt and find food. The young birds will remain with their parents for several months before striking out on their own.

IUCN Status

The Wreathed Hornbill is currently listed as “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This means that the species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future if the current threats to its population are not addressed.

The main threats facing the Wreathed Hornbill include habitat loss and degradation, as well as hunting for food and their feathers. The bird’s forest habitat is being destroyed and fragmented due to human activities such as logging, agriculture, and infrastructure development. This is leading to a loss of suitable nesting sites and a decrease in the availability of food sources for the birds.

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